Standards Alignment

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

UNIT I – Focus on Tectonic Impacts

Evidence Statement PS-1: Use Mathematical representations to support the claims that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-7 Matter and its Interactions Emphasis is on using mathematical ideas to communicate the proportional relationships between masses of atoms in the reactants and the products, and the translation of these relationships to the macroscopic scale using the mole as the conversion from the atomic to the macroscopic scale. Emphasis is on assessing students’ use of mathematical thinking and not on memorization and rote application of problem-solving techniques.

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Conduct an investigation to generate circumference and volume data for modeling the amount of ash deposited on North America.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Calculating the volume of ash deposited on North America using Google earth to obtain circumference of different ash layers, assuming mass is conserved, the volume of magma in the chamber should equal the volume of ash deposited.

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Evidence statement PS-2: Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-2 Matter and its Interactions Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen.

Essential Outcomes: Students will conduct an investigation to generate circumference and volume data for modeling the amount of ash deposited on North America.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Calculating the volume of ash deposited on North America using Google earth to obtain circumference of different ash layers, assuming mass is conserved, the volume of magma in the chamber should equal the volume of ash deposited.

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Evidence statement ESS1-5: Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-ESS1-5 Earth’s Place in the Universe Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core of the continental plate (a result of past plate interactions

Essential Outcomes: Students will research tectonic movement of magmatic hots pots to predict the direction of movement and estimated time line of the Yellowstone Caldera eruption cycle to generate a model that predicts the potential threat of an eruption in the near future. Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Not assigned.

Evidence Statement ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. (STEM application).

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-ETS1-2 Engineering and Design Design a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and trade-off considerations.

Essential Outcomes: Students will use the engineering designs and eventually choose one to use as a guide for building devices that will produce fresh drinking able water from water that has been compromised by acid rain and physical contaminants.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Design and build a device that can eliminate dissolved NaCl (a product from the neutralization reaction) to make pure drinking water.

UNIT 2 – Focus on Economic and Humanitarian Impact

Evidence statement PS-1: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

NGSS Performance Clarification: HS-PS1-1 Matter and its Interactions Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to main group elements. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends.

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Use the trends on the periodic table to create reactions that will produce vast amounts of heat. Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Not assigned. ___________________________________________________

Evidence statement PS1-2: Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-2 Matter and its interactions Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Use the trends on the periodic table to create reactions that will produce vast amounts of heat.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Not assigned.

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Evidence statement ESS3-1: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories of the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-ESS3-1 Earth and Human Activities Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Use local and national data to assess the community’s decision to support continued usage of local soil and mineral resources that will lead to a key information that will determine if the land is workable or does the community need to move on to areas in other parts of the country.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Create and use a simple soil texture analyze and analyze soil from three different areas of the local community. Based on the findings, students make decisions about staying in the area or going elsewhere.

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Evidence statement ESS3-4: Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-ESS3-4 Earth and Human Activities Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts (such as reducing, reusing, and recycling resources) to large-scale geo-engineering design solutions

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Analyze the chemical production processes of organic fuels to acquire efficient means of refining fuels that will serve as sources of fuel in the event of a large scale shortage.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Create a simple still out of thick sport bottles, straws and some warm water. Corn can be catalyzed using alpha-amylase into ethanol and recovered to provide a source of fuel.

UNIT 3: Focuses on Electromagnetic and Biochemical Impacts

Evidence statement PS1-4: Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-4 Matter and its interactions Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Present calculations showing the breaking of bonds in reactants and the difference in the bond energy of the products to illustrate which alkali or earth alkali metals would best fit the desired function for the reaction.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Not assigned. ___________________________________________________

Evidence statement PS1-5: Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-5 Matter and its Interactions Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.

Essential Outcomes: Students will apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to Their own physical trials that will provide physical feedback on how their body’s carbon dioxide and oxygen equilibrium are affected by changing concentrations of each.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Using students, a bluetooth heart rate monitor, students can establish insight into their own CO2 / O2 equilibrium.

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Evidence statement PS1-6: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories of the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-6 Matter and its Interactions Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.

Essential Outcomes: Students will apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to Their own physical trials that will provide physical feedback on how their body’s carbon dioxide and oxygen equilibrium are affected by changing concentrations of each. Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Using students, a bluetooth heart rate monitor, students can establish insight into their own CO2 / O2 equilibrium.

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Evidence statement PS4-1: Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS4-1 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer. Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.

Essential Outcomes: Students will test electromagnetic signal energy to acquire information about the transmissibility of different materials so that will key decisions can be made about which materials to use for reflecting an EM signals and which to be used for blocking them.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Students evaluate the penetrability of different types of materials by putting their cell phones inside each one and then trying to call it. The results indicate which materials can be used to protect yourself from a prion activation signal. ___________________________________________________

Evidence statement PS4-2: Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS4-1 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer. Examples of advantages could include that digital information is stable because it can be stored reliably in computer memory, transferred easily, and copied and shared rapidly. Disadvantages could include issues of easy deletion, security, and theft.]

Essential Outcomes: Students will test electromagnetic signal energy to acquire information about the transmissibility of different materials so that will key decisions can be made about which materials to use for reflecting an EM signals and which to be used for blocking them. Laboratory

Exercises / Activities: Students use the data from the prior experiment to construct a helmet or structure using the ascribed materials that could protect themselves. Materials must be proven to block 3G signals 4G would be even better, but considered a bonus.

UNIT 4 : Focused on Space-based Impact

Evidence statement PS1-3: Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-3 Matter and its Interactions Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension

Essential Outcomes: Students will: Use different methods for calculating density to acquire the density of objects that have oddly shaped structures that will provide given information about specific qualities of a given material because of its unique density.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Students are presented with a wide collection of materials of different masses, shapes, and densities. Students use measurements and volumetric analysis to rank the materials that are both real and theoretical.

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Evidence statement PS1-2: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-2 Matter and its Interactions Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, of carbon and oxygen, or of carbon and hydrogen Essential Outcomes: Students will: Use a cutting edge nuclear synthesis concept called “Island of Stability” to make predictions about the atomic and nuclear attributes of the much larger engineered atoms.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Students are presented with a wide collection of materials of different masses, shapes, and densities. Students use measurements and volumetric analysis to rank the materials that are both real and theoretical.

UNIT 5 : Focuses on Thermonuclear and Electromagnetic Impact

Evidence statement PS1-8: Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-8 Matter and its Interactions Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.

Essential Outcomes: Students will use computer simulation software to analyze the degradation of nuclear material over time to provide a risk assessment for remaining in a specific area that has been soaked with various types of radiation.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Not assigned. ___________________________________________________

Evidence statement PS2-3: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS1-2 Matter and its Interactions Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.

Essential Outcomes: Students will adapt the energy of kinetic motion to that of the energy of sub-nuclear radioactive particles to procure a potential solution for preventing prolonged exposure and increasing protection from nuclear radiation.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Optionally assigned.

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Evidence statement PS3-1: Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS3-1 Energy Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.

Essential Outcomes: Students will utilize a computer simulation on nuclear impact zones to calculate the amount of destruction at varying levels of yield to acquire an understanding of the impact of “height of detonation” can have on a target of nuclear attack. Laboratory Exercises / Activities: To visit the online simulator for nuclear yield testing, visit nukemap.com.

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Evidence statement ETS1-4: Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-ETS1-4 Engineering Design Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic, in conjunction with computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions. Use mathematical models and/or computer simulations to predict the effects of a design solution on systems and/or the interactions between systems

Essential Outcomes: Students will utilize a computer simulation on nuclear impact zones to calculate the amount of destruction at varying levels of yield to acquire an understanding of the impact of “height of detonation” can have on a target of nuclear attack. Laboratory Exercises / Activities: To visit the online simulator for nuclear yield testing, visit nukemap.com.

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Evidence statement PS2-5: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. (STEM Applications).

NGSS Performance Clarification HS-PS2-5 Forces and Interactions Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.

Essential Outcomes: Students will use basic instruction on electrochemical batteries to create a electromagnetically driven motor to achieve a small amount of work when only using spare metallic sources routinely found around the house.

Laboratory Exercises / Activities: Using only simple metallic components to create an electric current, students will build a galvanic battery which would involve making judgements about the E-cell value for the anodes and cathodes to maximize cell voltage. A successful electrochemical cell system outputs more than 2.0v and easily lights an LED.